What is fermentation? Explains the relationship with corruption, the mechanism and etymology!

"What is fermentation in the first place?"
"What is the difference between putrefaction and fermentation?"
"What kind of mechanism is fermentation?"

In recent years, amazake and salted koji boom have occurred, and fermented foods are attracting attention.

However, when I ask "What is fermentation?", I cannot explain it well or understand it well.

To be honest, I learned it after I started manufacturing fermented foods.

But once you understand it, it's not difficult at all, and I think it will be easier to organize in your head.

This time, I will tell you about the mechanism, history, etymology , etc. about such "What is fermentation?"

Please read to the end and accumulate knowledge about fermentation!

What is fermentation?

First, let me tell you what fermentation is in the first place.

  1. The action of microorganisms decomposes organic matter and changes it into another substance.
  2. The process of decomposing sugar and other substances to obtain energy under anaerobic conditions in the absence of oxygen.

    Fermentation has two meanings, but they are related to each other.

    For example, when sugar is converted to alcohol by yeast in the absence of oxygen, it can be said that both are satisfied because it produces energy in the process while being an action of microorganisms.

    MEMO
    Organic matter is a substance containing carbon (C). In foods, starch such as rice and potatoes, and wood, plastic, ethanol, etc. I have.

    What is the difference between fermentation and putrefaction?

    The difference between fermentation and putrefaction is

    Fermentation: Microorganisms produce substances that are beneficial to humans.
    Corruption: Microorganisms produce substances that are harmful to humans. It is

    .

    Actually, it is not scientific that separates fermentation and spoilage, but our culture .

    See this article for details!

    Understand in 1 minute! What is the difference between fermentation and putrefaction?

    Fermentation is one of the life activities of the third generation!

    Fermentation: Obtaining energy in a place without oxygen (anaerobic environment)
    Breathing: Extracting energy in a place with oxygen (aerobic environment)
    Photosynthesis: Carbon dioxide by light energy Synthesizes organic substances such as sugar from

    [Extra edition] It is said that oolong tea and black tea are also fermented, but that was oxidation! ??

    I explained that fermentation has two meanings, but it is sometimes called "fermentation" when it does not apply.

    That is the fermentation when making oolong tea or black tea from tea leaves.

    These are the actions of the enzymes that the tea leaves have in their own right, so is correctly "oxidation", but it is called "fermentation".

    However, since the fermentation when making post-fermented tea such as Goishicha and black tea is performed by molds and bacteria, organic substances are decomposed by the action of microorganisms and changed to another substance. t1>.

    What is the mechanism of fermentation?

    Next, I will explain the mechanism of fermentation.

    ◯◯ Fermentation is famous for lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation.

    Fermentation is anaerobic in the absence of oxygen.

    Anaerobic metabolic reactions (lactic acid fermentation, alcoholic fermentation) are energy inefficient and therefore proceed slowly.

    As a result, various organic substances (lactic acid and alcohol) remain and accumulate

    Lactic acid fermentation

    Lactic acid fermentation is fermentation that produces lactic acid from sugar by lactic acid bacteria.

    Pickles and yogurt are fermented foods made by lactic acid fermentation.

    Lactic acid fermentation also occurs in us humans.

    We sometimes describe fatigue caused by sudden exercise as "lactic acid accumulates in muscles".

    "Lactic acid accumulates in the muscle" is a state in which lactic acid fermentation is being performed in the muscle to obtain even a little energy in a situation where the supply of oxygen by breathing is not in time.

    Alcohol fermentation

    Alcohol fermentation is fermentation that produces alcohol and carbon dioxide from sugar by yeast.

    There are sake, beer, wine, etc. that are made by alcoholic fermentation.

    Sake, beer, and wine are all alcoholic fermentations, but they can be further divided into three types: single fermentation, single line double fermentation, and parallel double fermentation.

    Other ◯◯ fermentation

    In the above, we have described the fermentation process in which sugar and other substances are decomposed to obtain energy under anaerobic conditions in the absence of oxygen.

    But In the phenomenon commonly called fermentation in the world, anaerobic fermentation is very small .

    Many "fermentations" are used to mean "organic matter is decomposed by the action of microorganisms and changed to another substance." . Many microorganisms that require oxygen (aerobic) in the fermentation process are used.

    Aerobic reactions using oxygen are energy efficient, so the bacteria grow quickly, and the heat of reaction often raises the temperature on the spot.

    Fermenting bacteria that use oxygen include natto bacteria used to make natto and aspergillus used to make miso and amazake.

    ◯◯ I would like to introduce two things called fermentation.

    Acetic acid fermentation

    Acetic acid fermentation is used in vinegar, nata de coco fermented coconut milk, and caspian sea yogurt.

    Acetic acid bacteria produce acetic acid from alcohol (formally ethanol) contained in alcohol.

    Although it is an aerobic fermentation that uses oxygen, it is industrially called acetic acid fermentation.

    Citric acid fermentation

    Citric acid is contained in citrus fruits and is said to have the effect of relieving fatigue and improving athletic performance, and is added to soft drinks.

    Citric acid fermentation is the process of producing citric acid using cheap molasses (a liquid containing sugar) as a raw material and black mold, which is a type of aspergillus niger called Aspergillus niger. ..

    It has been established as an industrial method for producing citric acid because it has a production efficiency comparable to that of the petrochemical industry.

    Fermentation is also the process of industrially producing useful chemicals using microorganisms, such as citrate fermentation, and various substances such as amino acids and antibiotics are produced by fermentation.

    About the history of fermentation

    Next, I would like to tell you about the history of fermentation.

    It is not the history of fermented foods, but the history of fermentation.

    Fermentation in the purest sense is the process of decomposing sugar etc. to obtain energy under anaerobic conditions in the absence of oxygen .

    Actually, fermentation was done before breathing

    It is said that oxygen appeared on this earth 3 billion years ago when cyanobacteria called cyanobacteria emerged and photosynthesis began.

    I mentioned earlier in the third generation life activity that breathing is an activity to extract energy in a place with oxygen (aerobic environment).

    However, In the era when oxygen did not exist before 3 billion years ago, energy acquisition by respiration was not performed, and as a method of acquiring energy, organic matter without using oxygen Was decomposed and "fermented" was performed.

    The etymology of fermentation was "spring".

    Fermentation is called "fermentation" in English.

    This is the etymology of "fervere" which means "spring" and "boiling" in Latin, and seeing the phenomenon that carbon dioxide gas (carbon dioxide) generated during alcoholic fermentation floats as bubbles. It is believed that it was named as.

    Conclusion

    How was it?

    Even if you say fermentation in a word, there is a difference between fermentation without oxygen and fermentation with oxygen.

    Historically, I learned that fermentation had taken place before breathing, and that microorganisms existed long before animals and plants, including humans, who needed breathing. I felt great again.

    The more you know about fermentation, the deeper and more interesting it is.

    Let's take in fermented foods while knowing about fermentation and aim for a healthy life from your daily diet! .